Plants and BioEnergy (Advances in Plant Biology)
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A country's vision for developing renewable and sustainable energy resources is typically propelled by three important drivers – security, cost, and environmental impact. The U.S. currently accounts for a quarter of the world’s total oil consumption, with domestic demands necessitating – at an ever growing cost – a net import of more than 50% of the oil used in this country. At the same time, Brazil, because of its forward thinking on energy strategy, is today energy independent. As emerging economies around the world increase their petroleum use by large margins and as large fractions of that new consumption are necessarily supplied from unstable parts of the world, the inevitable repercussions on petroleum-driven economies will continue to escalate. In addition, there is an unequivocal imperative to take immediate and aggressive measures to reduce net greenhouse gas emissions by decreasing fossil fuel consumption and increasing our use of carbon-neutral or carbon-negative fuels as well as improving efficiency of fuel use. Economic growth and development worldwide depend increasingly on secure supplies of reliable, affordable, clean energy. Together with its counterpart societies, was convened the First Pan-American Congress on Plants and BioEnergy, which was held in June, 2008, in Mérida, Mexico. Sponsored by the American Society of Plant Biologists, this congress was designed to initiate Pan-American research collaborations in energy biosciences. At that congress, the organizational committee committed themselves to continue the meeting biennially, resulting in the 2nd Pan-American Congress on Plants and BioEnergy to be held with the endorsement of ASPB, July 6-10, 2010, in São Paulo, Brazil. Whereas the 1st congress covered a broad range of topics that bioenergy impacted, the second congress will focus more on the advances in plant biology: the genetic improvement of energy crop plants, their fit into regional environments, and the development of a sustainable energy agriculture.
value and can be sources of income. There are markets for expertise in water and waste management. 4.3.2 Fine Chemicals Like agar, algal products vary substantially in price and value, according to their use and refinement. β-Carotene is a metabolite with a wide range of commercial applications. It is used as a food coloring (with a major application in providing the yellow color to margarine), as a good additive to enhance the color of the flesh of fish and the yolk of eggs, and to improve the
their importance in the conservation and restoration efforts of the prairie ecosystems of North America. We argue that both improved and locally collected ecotypes can coexist on the landscape and help to jumpstart the shift to a bioenergy based economy that provides sufficient biomass to meet cellulosic bioenergy goals, restore native ecosystems, and provide an array of regulating, cultural, and supporting ecosystem services while increasing the sustainability of agriculture. A. R.
is possible (Belanger et al. 2003). Systematic dispersal studies using sentinel plants recovered herbicide resistance seedlings at a distance of up to 21 km (Watrud et al. 2004). A follow up study collected plants from a 4.8 km area surrounding the initial planting area identified nine transgenic plants out of 20,400 tested (Zapiola et al. 2007). Switchgrass, Indiangrass, and big bluestem are likely to disperse pollen over longer distances than creeping bentgrass due to their taller morphology
distilleries initially established a minimum ethanol yield of 2.500 l ha−1 in 2011 and have suggested in 2012 and 2013 that an ideal minimum ethanol yield of 3,000 l ha−1 provides a more adequate profit scenario. The first variety released by Embrapa, BR506 has met these minimum requirements in pilot operations at large distilleries. The varieties released by Embrapa in 2012, BRS508, BRS509 and BRS511, also meet these minimum requirements. Sweet sorghum varieties are the preferred cultivars;
requiring accessions (e.g. meristems. FT2 forms perennial A. lyrata) FRI upregumolecular networks lates FLC whilst prolonged with different genes in cold (vernalization) overrides response to various stress FRI enabling flowering when factors to control vegetatemperatures warm tive growth Growth process Table 7.1 continued 118 A. Karp et al. Cell wall synthesis and secondary growth (continued) Menges et al. (2007), Dong The cyclin family of proteins regu- 22 CYCD genes were identiet al.