New Models of the Cell Nucleus: Crowding, Entropic Forces, Phase Separation, and Fractals, Volume 307 (International Review of Cell and Molecular Biology)
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International Review of Cell and Molecular Biology presents current advances and comprehensive reviews in cell biology--both plant and animal. Articles address structure and control of gene expression, nucleocytoplasmic interactions, control of cell development and differentiation, and cell transformation and growth. Impact factor for 2012: 4.973.
Ideas from the fields of biophysics, physical chemistry, of polymer and colloid, and soft matter science have helped clarify the structure and functions of the cell nucleus. The development of powerful methods for modeling conformations and interactions of macromolecules has also contributed. The book aims to encourage cell and molecular biologists to become more familiar with and understand these new concepts and methods, and the crucial contributions they are making to our perception of the nucleus.
- This is the first volume to present a comprehensive review of New Models of the Cell Nucleus
channels. A possibly related phenomenon was reported recently by Richter et al. (2007), who observed, using fluorescence and electron microscopy, compaction of chromatin in response to added salt. Recent experiments have applied light and neutron scattering techniques to probe conformations of polymer coils in crowded solutions. Fluorescence spectroscopy has been used to image single molecules in solution (Mazouchi et al., 2013). Neutrons provide the unique ability to distinguish between
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two-phase systems. Langmuir 21, 8478–8486. 146 William M. Aumiller Jr. et al. Hernandez-Verdun, D., 2006. Nucleolus: from structure to dynamics. Histochem. Cell Biol. 125, 127–137. Johansson, H.O., Karlstrom, G., Tjerneld, F., Haynes, C.A., 1998. Driving forces for phase separation and partitioning in aqueous two-phase systems. J. Chromatogr. B 711, 3–17. Kaiser, T.E., Intine, R.V., Dundr, M., 2008. De novo formation of a subnuclear body. Science 322, 1713–1717. Kato, M., Han, T.W., Xie, S.,
However, the association of CENP-E with mitogen-activated protein kinases in mitotic cells suggests that the interaction between microtubules and chromosomes to control mitotic progression involves an additional layer of regulation (Mayes et al., 2013; Zecevic et al., 1998). 2.2. SAC and the kinetochore The function of the SAC involves communication with the kinetochore, an essential multiprotein complex crucial for chromosome segregation that assembles on mitotic or meiotic centromeres to link
Bolanos-Garcia et al., 2012). In agreement with this notion, the cooperative assembly of higher order signaling complexes has been described for the KMN subcomplexes Mis12 and Ndc80, which play an essential role in SAC signaling. The Ndc80 subcomplex is composed of four subunits Ndc80 (the subunit that gives its name to the entire subcomplex), Nuf2, Spc24, and Spc25 that define a dumbbell-shaped molecule (Fig. 6.5) (Ciferri et al., 2005, 2008; Wan et al., 2009; Wei et al., 2005, 2007). The