Neurobiology of Interval Timing (Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology)
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The study of how the brain processes temporal information is becoming one of the most important topics in systems, cellular, computational, and cognitive neuroscience, as well as in the physiological bases of music and language. During the last and current decade, interval timing has been intensively studied in humans and animals using increasingly sophisticated methodological approaches. The present book will bring together the latest information gathered from this exciting area of research, putting special emphasis on the neural underpinnings of time processing in behaving human and non-human primates. Thus, Neurobiology of Interval Timing will integrate for the first time the current knowledge of both animal behavior and human cognition of the passage of time in different behavioral context, including the perception and production of time intervals, as well as rhythmic activities, using different experimental and theoretical frameworks. The book will the composed of chapters written by the leading experts in the fields of psychophysics, functional imaging, system neurophysiology, and musicology. This cutting-edge scientific work will integrate the current knowledge of the neurobiology of timing behavior putting in perspective the current hypothesis of how the brain quantifies the passage of time across a wide variety of critical behaviors.
than” in the duration task From Duration and Distance Comparisons to Goal Encoding in Prefrontal Cortex also encoded “farther than” in the distance task. We have not yet examined whether a neuron that encodes a “long” duration encodes also a “far” stimulus. To our knowledge, no other neurophysiological study has addressed the study of common magnitude in terms of relative coding. Tudusciuc and Nieder  have addressed the coding of absolute magnitude in monkeys in the context of numerosity
and a control condition with no secondary task. 36 These findings support the notion of two distinct timing mechanisms involved in temporal processing of intervals in the sub-second and second range. While temporal processing of intervals in the second range demands cognitive resources, temporal processing of intervals in the sub-second range appears to be highly sensory in nature and beyond cognitive control. The distinct timing hypothesis is also supported by neuropharmacological and
and computer power, it became possible to simulate biophysical models which had a structure similar to that of artificial neural networks, but were directly based on physical equations for describing voltage and current dynamics in neurons and synapses. Buonomano et al. pioneered detailed, biophysics-based simulations of the cerebellum (including conditioning experiments with time delays of several hundred ms ) and cortical 52 network models including synaptic short-term plasticity which
idea that the synaptic strengths will be updated each time an event duration is encountered that results in the firing of a MSN, the mean of the distribution is updated following a simple reinforcement learning algorithm. The distributions shown in the right panel of Fig. 6 represent the detectors of SBFn after sufficient training has been provided and a relatively stable pattern has emerged. Clearly, a nonlinear pattern is exhibited, starting with high temporal resolution at shorter durations
source of the oscillations that provide the input to the MSNs as neither the SBF nor SBFn model Dedicated Clock/Timing-Circuit Theories of Time Perception and Timed Performance identifies the exact source. Interestingly, both theoretical and empirical work suggests that working memory and interval timing rely not only on the same anatomical structures, but also on the same neural representation of a specific stimulus [139, 140]. Specifically, cortical neurons may fire in an oscillatory fashion