Nanotechnology and Plant Sciences: Nanoparticles and Their Impact on Plants
Format: PDF / Kindle (mobi) / ePub
This book presents a holistic view of the complex and dynamic responses of plants to nanoparticles, the signal transduction mechanisms involved, and the regulation of gene expression. Further, it addresses the phytosynthesis of nanoparticles, the role of nanoparticles in the antioxidant systems of plants and agriculture, the beneficial and harmful effects of nanoparticles on plants, and the application of nanoparticles and nanotubes to mass spectrometry, aiming ultimately at an analysis of the metabolomics of plants. The growing numbers of inventions in the field of nanotechnology are producing novel applications in the fields of biotechnology and agriculture. Nanoparticles have received much attention because of the unique physico-chemical properties of these compounds. In the life sciences, nanoparticles are used as “smart” delivery systems, prompting the Nobel Prize winner P. Ehrlich to refer to these compounds as “magic bullets.” Nanoparticles also play an important role in agriculture as compound fertilizers and nano-pesticides, acting as chemical delivery agents that target molecules to specific cellular organelles in plants. The influence of nanoparticles on plant growth and development, however, remains to be investigated. Lastly, this book reveals the research gaps that must be bridged in the years to come in order to achieve larger goals concerning the applications of nanotechnology in the plants sciences.
In the 21st century, nanotechnology has become a rapidly emerging branch of science. In the world of physical sciences, nanotechnological tools have been exploited for a broad range of applications. In recent years, nanoparticles have also proven useful in several branches of the life sciences. In particular, nanotechnology has been employed in drug delivery and related applications in medicine.
been dedicated to unveil the biological application of carbon nanotubes because of their unique physicochemical properties (Singh et al. 2005; Gao et al. 2006; Kam et al. 2005, 2006). Work in this area is motivated both by the hope that carbon nanotubes will have useful applications in biology and by the concern that they may exert harmful effects on organisms. A considerable volume of the literature has appeared in the last decade on the application of carbon nanotubes in biological and medical
They were present in the roots as RE phosphate and the observed phytotoxicity was mainly attributed to the released ions (Ma et al. 2011; Zhang et al. 2012a). Recently, we evaluated the different phytotoxicity of CeO2 and La2O3 NPs to cucumber plants and clarified the relation between physicochemical properties of NMs and their behaviors (Ma et al. 2014). The different distribution (Fig. 5.1) and speciation (Fig. 5.2) of Ce and La in the cucumber plants implied that La2O3 acted as its ionic form,
exudates and subsequently transformed to CePO4 and Ce carboxylates. The released Ce3+ ions were partially immobilized by the phosphates which are abundant in nutrient solution and plant tissues. The rest Ce3+ translocated from the roots to shoots or immobilized by carboxyl compounds in xylem during the translocation process. This study greatly favors us the understanding of the behavior of ENMs in plants. In another report by the same research group, biotransformation of CeO2 NPs was also found
in various consumer applications, will undoubtedly contaminate the environment (soil, water, and air), potentially impacting the agriculture and food/feed quality, and may pose unknown risk to human health and safety (NNI 2006; Pokhrel et al. 2014a). Although much research to date focused on animal, mammalian cell lines, microbial, and algal models for understanding nanotoxicology (Navarro et al. 2008; Yu et al. 2009; Pokhrel et al. 2012; Pokhrel and Dubey 2012a, b; Silva et al. 2014),
unlocks new frontiers in genetic engineering science. However, v vi Preface the information available on the use of nanoparticles in genetic transformation of plants is still scarce. We have tried to bring together the views of experts of these subjects under one platform of this book to address the above issues. This book has 14 chapters written by experts with considerable experience in the area of research. The contents of each chapter are based on the research findings of active workers