Mint: The Genus Mentha (Medicinal and Aromatic Plants - Industrial Profiles)
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For thousands of years mint has enjoyed an honored place in pharmacopoeias and kitchen cupboards in India, China, Europe, North America, and elsewhere. Today the amount of essential oils produced from the four major mint species (cornmint, peppermint, Native spearmint, and Scotch spearmint) exceeds 23,000 metric tonnes annually with a market value of more than $400 million. This makes mint the most economically important essential oil.
Continuing in the esteemed tradition of the previous volumes in the Medicinal and Aromatic Plant Series, Mint: The Genus Mentha presents an in-depth look at the genus, providing information on its history, production, chemical constituents, market trends, and medicinal and nutritional uses. Beginning with a review of the correct taxonomy and proper distillation and extraction methods, the text then expands on many detailed and complex aspects of the cultivation, processing, and quality assessment of the different types of mint.
Outlining recent studies on the biosynthesis and biotechnology of improved potential for oil production, the text also includes theoretical aspects of distillation used to achieve efficient and cost effective oil isolation. Variations in chemical components in oils, even within a given species, by regional or environmental circumstance is the focus of a large portion of this book. The influence of these quantitative differences is explored in chapters on characterization, selection, and quality control methods including gas chromatographic profiles. The practice of ameliorating these variations with diluted or adulterated blends to produce a consistent product characteristic is also evaluated. The final portion of the book examines the role mint plays in the pharmaceutical, personal and oral care, aromatherapy, and flavor industries including confections, tobacco, and alcohol.
With extensive information from internationally known experts in their field, Mint: The Genus Mentha is an invaluable companion for all those actively engaged in the research, cultivation, marketing, or product development of mint.
Table 4.5. It has been observed that the fields cultivated with sugarcane or rice in the previous season are relatively free of weeds. The rice cultivation practice(s) tend to eliminate weeds, especially the dicot weeds. It has been further noticed that if a rice field that is used for mint was TABLE 4.5 Lists of Weeds That Are Known to Occur Frequently in the Mint Fields of the Relatively Wetter (Terai) and Drier Subtropical Agroclimates of India Class of Weeds Monocotyledonous Dicotyledonous
of Mentha spicata L. in Greece. In: Aromatic Plants: Basic and Applied Aspects, Margaris, N., Koedam, A. and Vokou, D., Eds., Martinus Nijhoff Publication, The Hague, pp. 131–140. Laing, R.M. and Blackwell, E.W. (1964). Plants of New Zealand. 7th ed., Whitcombe & Tombs, Christchurch. Li, X.-W. and Hedge, I.C. (1994). Lamiaceae. In: Flora of China. Verbenaceae through Solanaceae, Wu, Z.-I. and Raven, P.H., Eds., Missouri Botanical Garden, St. Louis, Vol. 17, pp. 50–299. Lloyd, D.G. and Barrett,
Lawrence, China). The isolation of mint oils from mint herbage is more complex than described earlier. As a result, the theoretical aspects of distillation must be applied if efficient cost-effective oil isolation is to be realized (Denny and Lawrence). The number and type of components that have been isolated from the commercially important oils (also including pennyroyal and Mentha citrata) and their quantitative differences found in the same taxa grown in different environments are of
1999b). The industrial scaling up of PAM cell cultures producing oils is therefore of great attraction, both for commercial exploitation and for the development of controlled cell systems in which the biogenesis of monoterpenes can be studied. The present development of in vitro plant propagation and breeding provides a powerful means for the genetic improvement of MAPs. Sexual hybridization imposes narrow limits to the scope of breeding, confining the breeder to the very low variability present
plants grown under short-day conditions (Langston and Leopold, 1954; Burbott and Loomis, 1967; Clark and 94 Mint: The Genus Mentha Menary, 1980a). In fact, day length in excess of 15 h is recommended for satisfactory oil yields (Green, 1963). Langston and Leopold (1954) concluded that a long photoperiod is necessary for, among other things, floral differentiation and oil synthesis. Most peppermint production occurs at latitudes above the 40th parallel where the day length is considered