Laboratory Manual for Anatomy and Physiology
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Laboratory Manual for Anatomy and Physiology, Third Edition presents exercises that will enhance one's understanding of anatomy and physiology. It contains activities and experiments that will help the reader to both visualize anatomical structures and understand physiological topics. Lab exercises are designed in a way that require readers to first apply information they learned and then to critically evaluate it.
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needed by the body. Covering and lining epithelia face exterior or interior spaces. The epithelial cell surface adjacent to the space is called the apical (apex ϭ tip) surface, whereas the epithelial cell surface adjacent to the basement membrane is the basal surface. When viewed from the apical surface, one can observe how epithelial cells fit together like floor tiles to form a lining or barrier (Figure 6.1). When viewed in cross-section (side view of cells), one can observe differences in
compact bone. Spongy bone is found in the epiphyses of long bones and in the interior of short, flat, and irregular bones. ACTIVITY 4 Microscopic Structure of Ground Compact Bone and Spongy Bone Pre-Lab Activity 1 Label the structures in Figures 8.2(a) and (b), and Figure 8.3(a) and (b). Lab Activity 1 Examine a prepared slide of a cross-section of ground compact bone. Blood vessels, osteocytes, and periosteum cannot be observed on ground bone slides. • Using the low-power objective lens,
thoracic vertebrae. The sternum is a narrow flat bone that is composed of three fused bones: the manubrium, the body of the sternum, and the xiphoid process. The manubrium (handle), the superior portion of the sternum, has a concave superior surface called the suprasternal notch or jugular notch. Between the body of the sternum and the manubrium is the sternal angle, an important clinical landmark indicating the attachment of the second rib, below which is the second intercostal space. The
occurs on a sagittal plane. Extension (exten- ϭ to stretch out Increase in the angle between bones of a joint; restore to anatomical position. Hyperextension (hyper- ϭ excessive) Excessive extension movement beyond normal anatomical position. Abduction (ab- ϭ away; duct- ϭ to lead) Move appendage away from the midline. Adduction (ad- ϭ toward) Move appendage toward midline. Circumduction (circ- ϭ circle) Move a distal part of an appendage in a circle. C. ROTATION (rota- ϭ revolve)
JWCL323_ch02_013-022.qxd 7/30/10 5:05 PM Page 13 E X E R C I S E 2 Organ Systems and Body Cavities Objectives After completing this exercise, you should be able to: 1 Name the organ systems and describe the functions of each 2 Name the major organs of each organ system and identify them on models or charts 3 Describe the location of the body cavities and name the organs they contain 4 Describe the structure and location of the serous membranes 5 Identify the abdominopelvic quadrants and