Karl Marx: Thoroughly Revised Fifth Edition
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Isaiah Berlin's intellectual biography of Karl Marx has long been recognized as one of the best concise accounts of the life and thought of the man who had, in Berlin's words, a more "direct, deliberate, and powerful" influence on mankind than any other nineteenth-century thinker. A brilliantly lucid work of synthesis and exposition, the book introduces Marx's ideas and sets them in their context, explains why they were revolutionary in political and intellectual terms, and paints a memorable portrait of Marx's dramatic life and outsized personality. Berlin takes readers through Marx's years of adolescent rebellion and post-university communist agitation, the personal high point of the 1848 revolutions, and his later years of exile, political frustration, and intellectual effort. Critical yet sympathetic, Berlin's account illuminates a life without reproducing a legend.
New features of this thoroughly revised edition include references for Berlin's quotations and allusions, Terrell Carver's assessment of the distinctiveness of Berlin's book, and a revised guide to further reading.
will, a year or two in the artillery, and after that another year or so in the Moscow Hegelians, longed desperately to tear himself away from a land where every form of thought was prosecuted as evil-mindedness, and independence of judgement or speech was looked upon as an insult to public morality.1 He was a marvellous mob orator, consumed with a genuine hatred of injustice and a burning sense of his mission to rouse mankind to some act of magnificent collective heroism which would set it free
labour. Proudhon had the unwisdom to submit his book, Philosophie de la misère (The Philosophy of Poverty), to Marx for criticism. Marx read it in two days and pronounced it fallacious and superficial, but written attractively and with sufficient eloquence and sincerity to mislead the masses. ‘To leave error unrefuted’, he declared in a similar situation many years later, ‘is to encourage intellectual immorality.’1 For ten workers who might go further, ninety may stop with Proudhon and remain in
desyatiletie’ (1880), Literaturnye vospominaniya (Moscow, 1960), chapter 31, 301–2; P. V. Annenkov, The Extraordinary Decade: Literary Memoirs, ed. Arthur P. Mendel, trans. Irwin R. Titunik (Ann Arbor, 1968), 167–8. 1 Alexander Herzen, ‘Russian Shadows: 1. N. I. Sazonov’ (1863), op cit. (70/1), Russian edition, x 315–16; English edition, ii 951–2. 1 op. cit. (57/1), 118–19 (= 316–17); English ed., 141–3. [Shatz translates more literally. In particular, he renders the paraphrase that opens IB’s
physiological and so on – of the fact that these forces work ‘through’ them and not merely ‘upon’ them (according to the laws of which Marx had become aware by the kind of investigation that Capital was intended to be), and if the application of this knowledge can at most only ‘shorten […] the birth pangs’ which precede the classless society, but is impotent to alter the process itself, then the concept of human freedom, whether in its social or individual aspects, is clearly in need of
id., ‘Vorläufige Thesen zur Reformation der Philosophie’, in Anekdota zur neuesten deutschen Philosophie und Publicistik, ed. Arnold Ruge (Zurich and Winterthur, 1843), ii 62–86; id., Grundsätze der Philosophie der Zukunft (Zurich, 1843).] 1 See Engels, Anti-Dühring (1878), parts I (Philosophy) and III (Socialism), CW 25: 33–134 (ice etc. at 58–9), 244–309. 1 A Contribution to the Critique of Political Economy (1859), Preface, CW 30: 262. 1 CW 37: 807. 1 A Contribution to the Critique of