Intermediate Physics for Medicine and Biology

Intermediate Physics for Medicine and Biology

Bradley J Roth

Language: English

Pages: 629

ISBN: 3319126814

Format: PDF / Kindle (mobi) / ePub

This classic text has been used in over 20 countries by advanced undergraduate and beginning graduate students in biophysics, physiology, medical physics, neuroscience, and biomedical engineering. It bridges the gap between an introductory physics course and the application of physics to the life and biomedical sciences. Extensively revised and updated, the fifth edition incorporates new developments at the interface between physics and biomedicine. New coverage includes cyclotrons, photodynamic therapy, color vision, x-ray crystallography, the electron microscope, cochlear implants, deep brain stimulation, nanomedicine, and other topics highlighted in the National Research Council report BIO2010. As with the previous edition, the first half of the text is primarily biological physics, emphasizing the use of ideas from physics to understand biology and physiology, and the second half is primarily medical physics, describing the use of physics in medicine for diagnosis (mainly imaging) and therapy. Among the many topics carried forward are thorough treatments of forces in the skeletal system, fluid flow, the logistic equation, scaling, equilibrium in statistical mechanics, the chemical potential and free energy, transport, membranes and osmosis, magnetic and electrical signals from nerves and the heart, membranes and gated channels in membranes, biological magnetic fields, linear and nonlinear feedback systems, including biological clocks and chaotic behavior, biological signal analysis, hearing and medical ultrasound, atoms and light, optical coherence tomography, radiometry and photometry, the interaction of photons and charged particles in tissue, radiological physics and the use of x-rays in diagnosis and therapy, nuclear medicine, and magnetic resonance imaging. Discussion of theory is closely linked to experiment. Prior courses in physics and in calculus are assumed. Intermediate Physics for Medicine and Biology, Fifth Edition is also ideal for self study and as a reference for workers in medical and biological research. Over 850 problems test and enhance the student's understanding and provide additional biological examples. A solutions manual is available to instructors. Each chapter has an extensive list of references.

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current as being through a single effective resistance Rm. i = Gv and introduce the conductance of the membrane This is shown in Fig. 6.26(b). It is customary to draw segment the resistance separately, as in Fig. 6.26(c). The current 2 πaL Gm = . (6.42) is then im = v/Rm and Cm( dv/dt) = −im = −v/Rm, ρmb Both the capacitance and the conductance are propor- dv = − 1 v. (6.37) tional to the area of the segment S. It is also convenient to dt RmCm introduce the lowercase symbols cm

systems analysis. It closes with scribed in Chapter 6: depolarization of the axon leads to an example of resetting the phase of a biological oscilla- increased sodium permeability, which further speeds de- tor. Section 10.8 introduces the ideas of period doubling polarization. Blood pressure is regulated in part by sen- and chaotic behavior through difference equations and 256 10. Feedback and Control 80 20 60 70 p =O demand, mmole min-1 40 80 2 60 , torr B 50 CO2 A 40 30

nepers m − 1, in which case the natural logarithm of the intensity or pressure frequency oscillating voltage applied across a piezoelec- ratio is used. tric material creates a sound wave at the same frequency. 13.7 Medical Uses of Ultrasound 351 Near field Far field r' a ∝1/r2 (r' + z ) 2 2 1/2 z Frequency = 2 MHz Wavelength = 0.077 cm Intensity on axis, arbitrary units Piston radius = 0.5 cm FIGURE 13.12. Coordinate system for calculating the inten- a/λ = 6.5 sity of

dipole is placed in a mag- momentum L. If the charge is positive, µ and L are parallel; netic field as in Fig. 18.1, it is necessary to apply an ex- if it is negative they are in opposite directions. ternal torque τ ext to keep it in equilibrium. This torque, which is required to cancel the torque exerted by the mag- netic field, vanishes if the dipole is aligned with the field. angular momentum, τ = dL /dt. Therefore the equation The torque exerted on the dipole by the magnetic field of

magnetic field, 516 Dielectric constant, 144 magnetic, 484, 516 lipid, 144 Dipole moment lipid bilayer, 163 electric, 168, 233 water, 144 Dirac, P. A. M., 304 Diem, M., 372, 397 Direct radiography, 450 Differential equation Discrete Fourier transform, 291 characteristic equation, 557 Disease, incidence and prevalence, 44 homogeneous and inhomogeneous, 557 Dispersion, 562 linear, 557 Displacement, 3, 545 Index 593 Displacement current, 207 mechanoreceptors, 243 Ditto, W. L.,

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