Historical Dictionary of Marxism (Historical Dictionaries of Religions, Philosophies, and Movements Series)
Elliott Johnson, Daniel Gray
Format: PDF / Kindle (mobi) / ePub
The second edition of the Historical Dictionary of Marxism covers of the basics of Karl Marx’s thought, the philosophical contributions of later Marxist theorists, and the extensive real-world political organizations and structures his work inspired—that is, the myriad political parties, organizations, countries, and leaders who subscribed to Marxism as a creed.
This text includes a chronology, an introductory essay, and an extensive bibliography. The dictionary section has over 500 cross-referenced entries on important personalities, both thinkers and doers; political parties and movements; and major communist or ex-communist countries. This book is an excellent access point for students, researchers, and anyone wanting to know more about Marxism.
antipathy toward the regime, the first general elections, in March 1991, returned a communist government. However, turmoil still reigned in Albania, and so it was no real surprise a year later that with communist implosion imminent, the electorate voted in the oppositional Albanian Democratic Party. The result meant the collapse of the last bastion of Marxism–Leninism in the Eastern Bloc as Albania mirrored the course of adjacent nations and headed for democratization. In pursuing a flexible
Kerekou soundly beaten, though he startled African politics by emerging victorious in both 1996 and 2001, albeit on a centrist ticket. That Kerekou announced his apostasy of Marxism in 1989 came as little surprise to those on both the right and the left of the Beninese political landscape, who regarded him as little more than a centrist military dictator. While there were some genuine attempts to implement Marxist–Leninist measures in the mid to latter parts of the 1970s, the PRPB government was
9/19/06 1:45 PM Page 105 FIRST INTERNATIONAL • 105 Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels were heavily involved. Formed in 1864 it initially lacked both a firm structure and organization, and an overall political program. This reflected the diverse groups and views represented in the International, including nationalist followers of Guiseppe Mazzini, Anglo–French positivists, English former Chartists, Proudhonists, supporters of Michael Bakunin and German socialists. The International had both
other classes in what Gramsci calls a “historic bloc.” For Gramsci, ideology plays at least as important a role in maintaining the rule of the bourgeoisie as does force. Schools, churches and the media are key institutions in the creation of consent to bourgeois rule. The implications of Gramsci’s notion of hegemony include a key role for intellectuals both on the side of the bourgeoisie in developing and propagating an ideology that engenders consent, and on the side of the proletariat in
economically and militarily under Stalin, its people also underwent terrible deprivations and experienced the most brutal repression. Stalinism will be remembered primarily as a form of totalitarian dictatorship some way removed from the workers’ paradise envisaged by Marx. While the distance between Marx’s aims and the realities of Stalinism are evident, it remains a matter of debate as to the link between Marxism and Stalinism. The success of the 1917 Revolution in Russia inspired the growth of