Hadrosaurs (Life of the Past)

Hadrosaurs (Life of the Past)

David A. Eberth

Language: English

Pages: 640

ISBN: 0253013852

Format: PDF / Kindle (mobi) / ePub

Hadrosaurs―also known as duck-billed dinosaurs―are abundant in the fossil record. With their unique complex jaws and teeth perfectly suited to shred and chew plants, they flourished on Earth in remarkable diversity during the Late Cretaceous. So ubiquitous are their remains that we have learned more about dinosaurian paleobiology and paleoecology from hadrosaurs than we have from any other group. In recent years, hadrosaurs have been in the spotlight. Researchers around the world have been studying new specimens and new taxa seeking to expand and clarify our knowledge of these marvelous beasts. This volume presents the results of an international symposium on hadrosaurs, sponsored by the Royal Tyrrell Museum and the Royal Ontario Museum, where scientists and students gathered to share their research and their passion for duck-billed dinosaurs. A uniquely comprehensive treatment of hadrosaurs, the book encompasses not only the well-known hadrosaurids proper, but also Hadrosaouroidea, allowing the former group to be evaluated in a broader perspective. The 36 chapters are divided into six sections―an overview, new insights into hadrosaur origins, hadrosaurid anatomy and variation, biogeography and biostratigraphy, function and growth, and preservation, tracks, and traces―followed by an afterword by Jack Horner.

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substantial number of characters used in this analysis are multistate in nature, a second run was undertaken using the “ordered” character option. The matrix was again analysed using Branch and Bound search option and was run under both ACCTRAN and DELTRAN optimization protocols. Results Running the data matrix with characters unordered produced a fairly well resolved topology in the strict consensus tree. Twelve most-parsimonious trees (MPTs) were produced, each with a tree length of 262 steps

cutting/grinding surface (1), the oldest and successional crowns contribute to the wear surface to varying degrees to produce a transversely broader cutting/grinding occlusal (2). 46. Relative crown width: maxillary crowns equal in width to dentary crowns (0), narrower than dentary crowns (1), equal in width to dentary crowns, but “miniaturized” (2). 47. Enamel surface distribution on tooth crowns: equally distributed on both sides of crown (0), asymmetrical distribution, thicker on one surface

al. Di s c u s s io n Ontogenetic Age of ivpp v 12534 All the neural arches of the preserved vertebrae are fused to their respective centra, suggesting that the holotype of Equijubus normani, IVPP V 12534, is a skeletally mature individual 3.20.  Fragments of femora of IVPP V 12534, holotype of Equijubus normani. (A) left femur in caudal view. (B–E) right femur: (B) proximal end in cranial view; (C–E) distal end in (C) cranial, (D) medial and (E) distal view. Abbreviations: 4t, fouth

to standardize terminology and facilitate comparisons. The labial crown surface is partially embedded within matrix. The preserved portion of the crown has a subtriangular outline in lingual view, tapering apically (Fig. 6.2A). The unenameled labial surface of the crown is strongly convex mesiodistally, giving the tooth a D-shaped cross section in basal view. The lingual surface of the tooth is enamelled and bears a strong, slightly distally offset primary ridge that divides the crown surface

between shapes (Lohmann, 1983; MacLeod, 1999). Singular value decomposition of the covariance matrix of phi functions for multiple shapes provides the principal components, eigenvalues, and shape variables used for comparisons (MacLeod, 1999; Krieger, 2010). The method requires a single homologous landmark starting point, and we used the anteroventral margin of the enamel surface as the landmark coordinate after orienting all specimen images to correspond to the left side of the dentary. All

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