Gettysburg's Forgotten Cavalry Actions: Farnsworth's Charge, South Cavalry Field, and the Battle of Fairfield, July 3, 1863
Format: PDF / Kindle (mobi) / ePub
In 1998, Eric J. Wittenberg's Gettysburg's Forgotten Cavalry Actions won the Bachelder-Coddington Award for the year's best new work interpreting the Battle of Gettysburg. This fully revised edition adds extensive new research, interpretations, and conclusions that substantially add to our understanding of these important mounted actions.
Gettysburg's Forgotten Cavalry Actions examines in great detail three of the campaign's central cavalry episodes. The first is the heroic but doomed legendary charge of Brig. Gen. Elon J. Farnsworth's cavalry brigade against Confederate infantry and artillery. The attack was launched on July 3 after the repulse of Pickett's Charge, and the high cost included the life of General Farnsworth. The second examines Brig. Gen. Wesley Merritt's tenacious fight on South Cavalry Field, including a fresh look at the opportunity to roll up the Army of Northern Virginia's flank on the afternoon of July 3. Finally, Wittenberg studies the short but especially brutal cavalry fight at Fairfield, Pennsylvania. The strategic Confederate victory kept the Hagerstown Road open for Lee's retreat back to Virginia, nearly destroyed the 6th U. S. Cavalry, and resulted in the award of two Medals of Honor.
Gettysburg's Forgotten Cavalry Actions: Farnsworth's Charge, South Cavalry Field, and the Battle of Fairfield, July 3, 1863 boasts several worthy additions: nearly 15,000 words of new material based upon recently uncovered archival sources, including a new appendix (co-authored with J. David Petruzzi) that resolves the dispute about where Farnsworth's Charge and Merritt's fight occurred; a walking and driving tour complete with GPS coordinates; and updated photographs to reflect the modern appearance of the Gettysburg battlefield, which now better reflects its 1863 appearance.
About the Author: Eric J. Wittenberg is an accomplished American Civil War cavalry historian and author. An attorney in Ohio, Wittenberg is the author of many articles and the author or co-author of more than a dozen books on Civil War cavalry subjects, including The Battle of Monroe's Crossroads and the Civil War's Final Campaign; Plenty of Blame to Go Around: Jeb Stuart's Controversial Ride to Gettysburg; and One Continuous Fight: The Retreat from Gettysburg and the Pursuit of Lee's Army of Northern Virginia, July 4-14, 1863. He lives in Columbus, Ohio, with his wife Susan.
"I recommend Gettysburg's Forgotten Cavalry Actions to cavalry students and fans of Gettysburg. It is both enjoyable and informative." - Bret Schulte, TOCWOC-A Civil War Blog
"Updated, revised, and better than ever, Eric Wittenberg's Gettysburg's Forgotten Cavalry Actions highlights the important role cavalry played at Gettysburg-and how students of the battle (and thus the general reading public) have largely overlooked it. This book needs to be read by every Gettysburg and Civil War enthusiast who wants a complete story of the battle." - J. David Petruzzi, author of The Complete Gettysburg Guide
"For too many years the cavalry, especially the Federal cavalry, and their contribution to the success or failure of the armies to which they belonged has been largely ignored. Over the last decade that has slowly begun to change. Amid the continuing flood of publications on the battle of Gettysburg one might wonder in disbelief that any aspects of the battle are still 'unknown', but three cavalry actions on July 3rd on the southern flank of the armies fall into that category, especially Merritt's fight on South Cavalry Field. Eric Wittenberg's Gettysburg's Forgotten Cavalry Actions rights that wrong. Whether the proper term is forgotten, unknown, or ignored, few people visit these three fields. After reading this book that will change. Armed with Eric's account, John Heiser's maps and some tantalizing 'what ifs' tomorrow's visitors to the park will discover an aspect of the great battle that few before have seen or appreciated, and finally the soldiers who fought and died there will take their rightful place alongside their more well known comrades." -- Robert F. O'Neill, Jr., author of: The Cavalry Actions at Aldie, Middleburg, Upperville
Company C to serve as its first sergeant. Caught up in the melee at Fairfield, his mortally wounded horse fell atop him, dislocating his left knee. Nine long and painful weeks in the hospital followed before he was able to rejoin his regiment. Unable to withstand the ardors of active duty in the field, however, Hess served out the balance of his enlistment as forage master at Cavalry Corps headquarters. The dedicated Prussian mustered out at the end of his term of enlistment on October 1864.40
a brigade and that the morale of the men would suffer under his continued stewardship. There was a command void to fill, and Merritt was the man for the job. “It is necessary that I have a good commander for the regular brigade of cavalry,” explained Pleasonton, “and I earnestly recommend Capt. Wesley Merritt to be made a brigadier-general for that purpose. He has all of the qualifications for it, and has distinguished himself by his gallantry and daring. Give me good commanders, and I will give
U.S. Cavalry in the fight for South Cavalry Field. After the war, Rodenbough became the leading American cavalry history authority. In an 1889 article entitled “Cavalry War Lessons,” Rodenbough commented: The Confederate testimony shows clearly (a) that the two small cavalry brigades of Merritt and Farnsworth so fully engaged the attention of Law’s infantry division that its support of Pickett (at one time contemplated by Longstreet) was out of the question, although such timely support would
and opened fire on the charging men of Farnsworth’s command. Farnsworth was shot somewhere in the vicinity of the 1st Vermont’s monument, and Capt. Oliver Cushman was also shot in that vicinity. (BENCHMARK 32) The survivors of Farnsworth’s column broke through the skirmish line of the 15th Alabama and rode to safety on Big Round Top or Bushman’s Hill. Be sure to spend a moment reading the monument to the 1st Vermont, which was one of the finest cavalry regiments to serve with the Army of the
Avenue. Here, the name of the road again changes, this time to Pumping Station Road. Remain on Pumping Station Road for 2.7 miles. Along the way you will cross Willoughby Run, which flows through the July 1 battlefield, as well as Marsh Creek. When you cross Marsh Creek, look to your left and locate the Sachs Covered Bridge, built in 1854 by David Stoner for Adams County, Pennsylvania. Both armies utilized the Sachs Covered Bridge during the Battle of Gettysburg, and part of the Army of Northern