Functional Surfaces in Biology: Adhesion Related Phenomena Volume 2

Functional Surfaces in Biology: Adhesion Related Phenomena Volume 2

Stanislav N. Gorb

Language: English

Pages: 275

ISBN: 9400791658

Format: PDF / Kindle (mobi) / ePub

This book is devoted to the rapidly growing area of science dealing with structure and properties of biological surfaces in their relation to particular function(s). This volume, written by a team of specialists from different disciplines, covers various surface functions such as protection, defense, water transport, anti-wetting, self cleaning, light reflection and scattering, and acoustics. Because biological surfaces have a virtually endless potential of technological ideas for the development of new materials and systems, inspirations from biology could also be interesting for a broad range of topics in surface engineering.

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wettability, since significantly more cyprids also settled on trimethylamine ( Nme3) terminated SAMs, compared to carboxylic acid ( COOH) SAMs, both of which had θAW < 20◦ (Fig. 2.3). Surface chemistry clearly dictates the attractiveness of surfaces to cyprids. Whether it does so via the modulation of surface wettability (Lindner, 1992; Callow and Fletcher, 1994), or by more direct effects of surface chemistry on bonding is a matter of debate. Furthermore, the cypris larvae of B. improvisus

eel, Anguilla anguilla. Cell and Tissue Research 171: 1–30. Markl, J., Winter, S. and Franke, W. (1989) The catalog and the expression complexity of cytokeratins in a lower vertebrate: biochemical identification of cytokeratins in a teleost fish, the rainbow trout. European Journal of Cell Biology 50: 1–16. Martorana, M.L., Tawk, M., Lapointe, T., Barre, N., Imboden, M., Joulie, C., Geraudie, J., and Vriz, S. (2001) Zebrafish keratin 8 is expressed at high levels in the epidermis of regenerating

the digital SEM images using the TeX module of MeX. These density measurements were used in conjunction with area measurements from the rocks and other surfaces to evaluate the potential number of setae that could contact the surfaces. 5.4 Results 5.4.1 Surface Topology and Available Contact Area The DEMs, depth-coloured images, and profiles of the various surfaces reveal a variety of patterns that typify smooth, rough (asperity sizes on the nano to micro scales) and undulant (asperities on the

systems (Currey, 1984). However, the magnitude of this factor depends upon a balance between the costs associated with developing and 148 M. Johnson et al. maintaining larger, stronger bones, and the benefit of preventing their failure (Currey, 1984). A similar argument can be applied to setae, where having an abundance of setae may be highly beneficial to the animal, but incurs costs associated with their production, maintenance, and the operation of setal fields. This is especially true as

Cavey, 1981; Flammang, 1996). The myofibrils are always oriented longitudinally and together they form an extensive longitudinal muscle layer (viz. the retractor muscle of the tube foot; Flammang, 1996). One important function of tube foot stems in both sea stars and sea urchins is to bear tensions applied to the animal by external forces. This load-bearing function may be critical for survival. Indeed, when asteroids and echinoids are subjected to a constant pull, a considerable proportion of

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