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The Extremophiles Handbook brings together the rapidly growing and often scattered information on microbial life in the whole range of extreme environments. This book will be a useful reference for finding clues to the origin of life and for exploring the biotechnology potential of these fascinating organisms.
enzyme is not thermostable enough. (2) Yield of CD from starch is not high, usually 20–30% on an industrial scale. (3) Toxic organic solvents such as trichloroethylene, bromobenzene, and toluene were used to precipitate CD due to the low conversion rate. The use of such harmful organic solvents is strongly prohibited in various fields, especially food processing. Therefore, the development of large-volume use was quite limited. In 1968, author’s group isolated several CGTases from alkaliphilic
Alkaliphiles Takahara T, Tanabe O (1960) Studies on the reduction of indigo in industrial fermentation vat (VII). J Ferment Technol 38:329–331 Takahara Y, Takasaki Y, Tanabe O (1961) Studies on the reduction of indigo in the industrial fermentation vat (XVIII). On the growth factor of the strain no. S-8 (4). J Ferment Technol 39:183–187 Takahara Y, Tanabe O (1962) Studies on the reduction of indigo in industrial fermentation vat (XIX) Taxonomic characteristics of strain no. S-8. J Ferment
Cyanidioschyzon (order Cyanidiales), a strain of which is acidophilic (pH 0.2–3.5), moderately thermophilic (38–57 C), has a high tolerance of arsenic, and the capacity for its biotransformation 5 6 1.1 Prologue (Qin et al. 2009); these authors consider that algae play a significant role in arsenic cycling in marine and freshwater geothermal environments. Distribution of Extremophiles and Extremotrophs At the wider scale, extreme environments on Earth have arisen, and continue to arise as
been isolated from deer and ostrich manure, and strains of facultatively alkaliphilic B. halodurans have been isolated from chicken, tiger, pigeon, and elephant manure (Nielsen et al. 1995). Strains of facultatively alkaliphilic B. cohnii were isolated from old horse feces. These findings suggest that certain alkaliphilic Bacillus spp. are related to animal manure or feces. In addition to the reports described above, Oceanobacillus oncorhynchi was isolated from the skin of rainbow trout
salt concentrations. Based on the comparison of the to date isolated anaerobic thermophiles, it appears that the higher the optimal growth temperature is, the lower are the pHopt and pHmax and vice versa (Wiegel and Kevbrin 2004). Apparently, the physico-chemical conditions for life are much lower when several extreme growth conditions are combined. The most alkaliphilic alkalithermophile is C. paradoxum with a pHopt55C of 10.3 and a Topt of 54–58 C. The anaerobic alkaliphiles with the highest