Exciting Interdisciplinary Physics: Quarks and Gluons, Atomic Nuclei, Relativity and Cosmology, Biological Systems
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Nuclear physics is an exciting, broadly faceted field. It spans a wide range of topics, reaching from nuclear structure physics to high-energy physics, astrophysics and medical physics (heavy ion tumor therapy). New developments are presented in this volume and the status of research is reviewed. A major focus is put on nuclear structure physics, dealing with superheavy elements and with various forms of exotic nuclei: strange nuclei, very neutron rich nuclei, nuclei of antimatter. Also quantum electrodynamics of strong fields is addressed, which is linked to the occurrence of giant nuclear systems in, e.g., U+U collisions. At high energies nuclear physics joins with elementary particle physics.
Various chapters address the theory of elementary matter at high densities and temperature, in particular the quark gluon plasma which is predicted by quantum chromodynamics (QCD) to occur in high-energy heavy ion collisions. In the field of nuclear astrophysics, the properties of neutron stars and quark stars are discussed. A topic which transcends nuclear physics is discussed in two chapters: The proposed pseudo-complex extension of Einstein's General Relativity leads to the prediction that there are no black holes and that big bang cosmology has to be revised. Finally, the interdisciplinary nature of this volume is further accentuated by chapters on protein folding and on magnetoreception in birds and many other animals.
parameters β2 = 0.25. The second region up to element 116 for neutron numbers of the measured α-decay chain considered here is a transitional region of decreasing deformation into the direction of the third region extending up to element 122 and beyond, which is governed by shell effects of spherical closed shells or subshells. Although the experimental Q α values are scarce we notice that the gradient of the experimental data between elements 114 and 116 is less than in the results of the MM
work uses the cranking approach to obtain the mass tensor components within the four-dimensional space of (b P , χT , χ P , R). According to the cranking model, after including the BCS pairing correlations , the inertia tensor is given by : Bi j = 2 2 νμ ν|∂ H/∂βi |μ μ|∂ H/∂β j |ν (u ν vμ + u μ vν )2 + Pi j (E ν + E μ )3 (23) where H is the single-particle Hamiltonian allowing to determine the energy levels and the wave functions |ν , u ν , vν are the BCS occupation probabilities, E ν
instance the liquid drop model assumes that the nuclear matter behaves like a liquid drop, while the shell model description is based on an independent motion of the nucleons in a mean field potential. The application of such models, even the most successful ones, is to some extend limited, since any nuclear phenomenon not covered by the initial assumptions remains beyond the model description. There is however a very powerful and very helpful additional consideration, i.e. the symmetries of the
corresponds to temperatures of Tproton ∼ 1013 degrees Kelvin, which is about 6 orders of magnitude larger than that of the solar interior. Fermi energies corresponding to this scale of baryon density are typically of order μbaryon − Mc2 of order 100’s of MeV’s. In the later analysis that follow I will use relativistic units where Planck’s constant and the speed of light are set to 1, and baryon Fermi energies will include the rest mass energy of the proton. 2 Matter in Thermal Equilibrium My
isotropic due to Glasma instabilities, and is of the form dN Q sat ∼ F(E/Q sat ) d 3 xd 3 p αs E (2) A thermal distrbution on the other hand would be of the form dN d 3 xd 3 p ∼ 1 e E/T −1 ∼ T /E (3) for E T . The distribution we start with for a Glasma therefore looks like the low energy coherent part of a thermal distribution cut off at an energy scale Q sat but with a temperature Q sat /αs . The entire distribution sits at a scale E ∼ αs T . In a thermal system it is well known that