Epigenetics

Epigenetics

Lyle Armstrong

Language: English

Pages: 300

ISBN: 081536511X

Format: PDF / Kindle (mobi) / ePub


The concept of epigenetics has been known about since the 1940s, but it is only in the last 10 years that research has shown just how wide ranging its effects are. It is now a very widely-used term, but there is still a lot of confusion surrounding what it actually is and does.

Epigenetics is a new textbook that brings together the structure and machinery of epigenetic modification, how epigenetic modification controls cellular functions, and the evidence for the relationship between epigenetics and disease. It is a valuable source of information about all aspects of the subject for undergraduate students, graduate students, and professionals.

 

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oocytes and sperms. [Adapted from Sabour D & Schöler HR (2012) Curr. Opin. Cell. Biol. 24, 716. With permission from Elsevier.] fertilization maturity 167 cleavage and blastulation PGCs fetal growth implantation and gastrulation organogenesis in Chapter 5, the DNMT3A/DNMTB and DNMT1 families of DNA cytosine-5-methyltransferases are responsible for the establishment and maintenance of methylation patterns, respectively. DNMT3B is expressed only in germ cells and only at the stages at which

implications. N Engl J Med 326:827–829. Henckel A, Chebli K, Kota SK et al. (2011) Transcription and histone methylation changes correlate with imprint acquisition in male germ cells. EMBO J 31:606–615 (doi:10.1038/emboj.2011.425). Kato Y & Sasaki H (2005) Imprinting and looping: epigenetic marks control interactions between regulatory elements. BioEssays 27:1–4 (doi:10.1002/bies.20171). Kim MJ, Choi HW, Jang HJ et al. (2013) Conversion of genomic imprinting by reprogramming and

catalytic domain. In addition to the kinase activity, this central domain also presents regulatory motifs, as the crystal structure of the Aurora A–TPX2 complex has shown. [Adapted from Bolanos-Garcia VM (2005) Int. J. Biochem. Cell Biol. 37, 1572. With permission from Elsevier.] KEN motif D-box (PxxRxxL) D-box activating motif 1 51 Aurora A 131 76 251 343 H2N COOH 18 Aurora C 402 COOH 1 Aurora B 383 H2N 249 H2N N-terminal domain 275 COOH catalytic domain C-terminal domain

coordinate homeotic gene expression. Nature 472:120–124 (doi:10.1038/nature09819). Morey L & Helin K (2010) Polycomb group protein-mediated repression of transcription. Trends Biochem Sci 35:323–332 (doi:10.1016/j.tibs.2010.02.009). Wilusz JE, Sunwoo H & Spector DL (2009) Long noncoding RNAs: functional surprises from the RNA world. Genes Dev 23:1494– 1504 (doi:10.1101/gad.1800909). Nagy Z & Tora L (2007) Distinct GCN5/PCAF-containing complexes function as co-activators and are involved in

EPIGENETIC CONTROL OF THE MITOTIC CELL CYCLE When the cell divides, it needs to replicate its DNA. Because histones carrying several post-translational modifications are an integral part of chromosome structure, it is essential to separate the DNA from histones temporarily to allow replication and the eventual partition of the copied DNA into the mother and daughter cells. Epigenetic control is central to this process. The cell cycle is a collective term for the series of events taking place in

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