Encyclopedia of Biological Invasions (Encyclopedias of the Natural World)

Encyclopedia of Biological Invasions (Encyclopedias of the Natural World)

Language: English

Pages: 792

ISBN: 0520264215

Format: PDF / Kindle (mobi) / ePub

This pioneering encyclopedia illuminates a topic at the forefront of global ecology—biological invasions, or organisms that come to live in the wrong place. Written by leading scientists from around the world, Encyclopedia of Biological Invasions addresses all aspects of this subject at a global level—including invasions by animals, plants, fungi, and bacteria—in succinct, alphabetically arranged articles. Scientifically uncompromising, yet clearly written and free of jargon, the volume encompasses fields of study including biology, demography, geography, ecology, evolution, sociology, and natural history. Featuring many cross-references, suggestions for further reading, illustrations, an appendix of the world’s worst 100 invasive species, a glossary, and more, this is an essential reference for anyone who needs up-to-date information on this important topic.

Encyclopedia of Biological Invasions features articles on:

• Well-known invasive species such the zebra mussel, chestnut blight, cheatgrass, gypsy moth, Nile perch, giant African snail, and Norway rat

• Regions with especially large numbers of introduced species including the Great Lakes, Mediterranean Sea, Hawaiian Islands, Australia, and New Zealand.

• Conservation, ecological, economic, and human and animal health impacts of invasions around the world

• The processes and pathways involved in invasion

• Management of introduced species

Analysing Ecological Data (Statistics for Biology and Health)

Rosalind Franklin: The Dark Lady of DNA

Evolution Through Genetic Exchange

From DNA to Diversity: Molecular Genetics and the Evolution of Animal Design (2nd Edition)

















(Wollemia nobilis), have been threatened by the pathogen. FIGURE 1 Examples of tree mortality caused by introduced species of Phytophthora. (A) Phytophthora cinnamomi in jarrah (Eucalyptus marginata) forest of Western Australia. (Photograph courtesy of Chris Dunne.) (B) Sudden oak death, caused by P. ramorum in a tanoak forest (Lithocarpus densiflorus) in coastal California. (Photograph courtesy of Kerri Frangioso.) The emerging plant disease sudden oak death has caused extensive mortality of

organisms. Bilge water, in particular, is a combination of ambient water, rain water, and general seepages that accumulate in the bilges, or the lowest internal parts of a ship, above the keelson. Ambient water with living organisms, including larvae, may have entered the bilges of old sailing ships through holes created by shipworms and gribbles. Crews drew this water out by hand-operated pumps; the water would then be brought up to deck level and would flow overboard through scupper holes or

In North America, the introduced New Zealand mud snail, Potamopyrgus antipodarum, is outcompeting native stream snails. Among land snails, there are no clear cases in which competition between introduced and native species has been demonstrated, although it is possible that the decline of certain native litter-dwelling snail species in the Pacific islands (e.g., Pleuropoma fulgora in the Samoan Islands) has been caused by competition between these species and introduced subulinids, notably

and diseases (e.g., avian pox). Overall, more research is needed to understand the effects of invasive birds on native biodiversity. INVASIVE BIRDS AND HUMANS Invasive birds may impact humans, since many of these are found in human-altered habitats, but the large majority are not inherently harmful to humans. For example, only 10 percent of all invasive species in Britain have become “pests.” Worldwide, the bill for bird damage to agriculture amounts to billions of dollars. Some species, such

and emus are found on the northwestern side of the dingo-proof fence, where dingoes are present, suggesting that the dingoes’ presence depresses their populations. However, fencing has had a limited effect, so other forms of control (trapping, poisoning) are necessary. Control usually means reducing the size of the pest population to acceptable levels. Because control is not complete removal of the invasive species, a constant or repeated effort is needed to keep the population at the desired

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