Encyclopedia of Astrobiology
Henderson James Cleaves
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The interdisciplinary field of Astrobiology constitutes a joint arena where provocative discoveries are coalescing concerning, e.g. the prevalence of exoplanets, the diversity and hardiness of life, and its increasingly likely chances for its emergence. Biologists, astrophysicists, biochemists, geoscientists and space scientists share this exciting mission of revealing the origin and commonality of life in the Universe. The members of the different disciplines are used to their own terminology and technical language. In the interdisciplinary environment many terms either have redundant meanings or are completely unfamiliar to members of other disciplines.
The Encyclopedia of Astrobiology serves as the key to a common understanding. Each new or experienced researcher and graduate student in adjacent fields of astrobiology will appreciate this reference work in the quest to understand the big picture. The carefully selected group of active researchers contributing to this work and the expert field editors intend for their contributions, from an internationally comprehensive perspective, to accelerate the interdisciplinary advance of astrobiology.
Makarova KS, Galperin MY, Koonin EV (2007) Inventing the dynamo machine: the evolution of the F-type and V-type ATPases. Nat Rev Microbiol 5:892–899 Nelson DL, Cox MM (2009) Lehninger principles of Biochemistry, 5th edn. WH Freeman, New York Noji H, Yasuda R, Yoshida M, Kinosita K Jr (1997) Direct observation of the rotation of F1-ATPase. Nature 386:299–302 Pedersen PL (2007) Transport ATPases into the year 2008: a brief overview related to types, structures, functions and roles in health and
Synonyms Definition Regio Aldehydes are organic compounds containing the RCHO functional group where R can be hydrogen or another carbon containing moiety, i.e., a part or functional group of a molecule. Aldehydes are named after the corresponding carboxylic acids by dropping the -ic or -oic suffix and adding -aldehyde or -al (for example, acetic acid ! ▶ acetaldehyde, ethanoic acid ! ethanal), or if derived from acyclic aliphatic hydrocarbons, by dropping the final e and adding -al (for
Aerospace Center (DLR) Institute of Aerospace Medicine Cologne Germany email@example.com ANDREY BEKKER Department of Geological Sciences University of Manitoba Winnipeg, MB Canada firstname.lastname@example.org G. FRITZ BENEDICT McDonald Observatory The University of Texas Austin, TX USA email@example.com List of Contributors STEFAN BENGTSON Department of Palaeozoology The Swedish Museum of Natural History Stockholm Sweden firstname.lastname@example.org JOHN H. BLACK Chalmers University
sulfur compounds are one of the most deeply rooted groups in the Tree of Life. ▶ Sulfur isotopes preserved in ancient sulfides especially pyrite along with sulfate minerals like barite are used to trace ancient microbial metabolisms. A review of sulfur isotopes in early Archean rocks can be found in Van Kranendonk et al. 2007. The baseline for interpreting such data is provided by studies of modern microbes that employ sulfur-based metabolisms including sulfur oxidation, sulfate reduction, and
used for rapid mineral identification. Also the spectra can be used for nondestructive 2-D and 3-D morphological mapping of, for instance, microfossils. Atomic force microscopy (AFM): Can be used to image and measure the atomic surface structure of a sample at the nanoscale by “feeling” the surface with a cantilever tip (can be coupled to a Raman microscope). Laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) of stable Isotopes C and S: Can measure isotopic ratios for a