Casarett & Doull's Essentials of Toxicology (Casarett and Doull's Essentials of Toxicology)
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Based on the “gold standard” text, this concise and accessible book distills the essentials of toxicology for pharmacy and medical students who want the best reference at their fingertips. The text features over 200 illustrations, summary tables, sections on “hot” research topics, and self-assessment questions and annotated answers for review.
to tissues. The concentration of 2,3-BPG increases whenever there is tissue hypoxemia but may decrease in the presence of acidosis. The oxygen affinity of hemoglobin decreases as the body temperature increases. This facilitates delivery of oxygen to tissues during periods of extreme exercise and febrile illnesses associated with increased temperature. Correspondingly, oxygen affinity increases and delivery decreases during hypothermia. The respiratory function of hemoglobin may also be impaired
DNA–protein complexes may serve as a biomarker of both exposure and carcinogenic potential. Also, hair can be useful in assessing variations in exposure to metals over the period of its growth. Metal-binding Proteins and Metal Transporters Protein binding of metals is a critical aspect of essential and toxic metal metabolism. Many different types of proteins play roles in the disposition of metals in the body. Nonspecific binding to proteins, like serum albumin or hemoglobin, acts in metal
adults is a relatively common problem. There are three basic ways in which excessive amounts of iron can accumulate in the body: (1) hereditary hemochromatosis due to abnormal absorption of iron from the intestinal tract, (2) excess intake via the diet or from oral iron preparations, and (3) repeated blood transfusions for some form of refractory anemia (transfusional siderosis). Increased body iron may play a role in the development of cardiovascular disease. It is suspected that iron may act as
nature of air pollution and its potential effects on humans (Figure 28–1). EPIDEMIOLOGIC EVIDENCE OF HEALTH EFFECTS Outdoor Air Pollution Acute and Episodic Exposures— The direction and design of clinical–epidemiology studies today, frequently referred to as panel studies, are largely person-based, where groups of people are studied (e.g., nursing home residents and schoolchildren) in their immediate environment using non- or minimally invasive clinical tools (e.g., pulmonary or cardiac
by a one-compartment model usually occurs through a first-order process; that is, the rate of elimination at any time is proportional to the amount of the chemical in the body at that time. First-order reactions occur at chemical concentrations that are not sufficiently high to saturate elimination processes. The equation for a monoexponential model, C = C0 e–kelt, can be transformed to a logarithmic equation that has the general form of a straight line, y = mx + b: where logC0 represents the