Bioinvasions and Globalization: Ecology, Economics, Management, and Policy
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Bioinvasions and Globalization synthesises our current knowledge of the ecology and economics of biological invasions, providing an in-depth evaluation of the science and its implications for managing the causes and consequences of one of the most pressing environmental issues facing humanity today.
Emergent zoonotic diseases such as HIV and SARS have already imposed major costs in terms of human health, whilst plant and animal pathogens have had similar effects on agriculture, forestry, fisheries. The introduction of pests, predators and competitors into many ecosystems has disrupted the benefits they provide to people, in many cases leading to the extirpation or even extinction of native species. This timely book analyzes the main drivers of bioinvasions - the growth of world trade, global transport and travel, habitat conversion and land use intensification, and climate change - and their consequences for ecosystem functioning. It shows how bioinvasions impose disproportionately high costs on countries where a large proportion of people depend heavily on the exploitation of natural resources. It considers the options for improving assessment and management of invasive species risks, and especially for achieving the international cooperation needed to address bioinvasions as a negative externality of international trade.
compared to the sample size of the (greedy) alternative. The inﬂuence of the second component of the value of a given observation, the immediate payoff, is more straightforward. As the spread between pˆ B and pˆ A increases, the immediate opportunity cost of exploration (forgone immediate expected rewards) increases and we expect the optimal exploration rate to fall. This is observed in Fig. 10.1 where Â∗ K , if positive, is largest when the spread is lowest. When we consider the sensitivity of
indeed the case to the degree that a strictly greedy policy was optimal for all of the cases considered. Some positive level of random inspection under the Â-decreasing strategy was optimal only when the inspection budget was large (K = 160). With a large number of sources the expected beneﬁt of an exploratory inspection was diluted by the fact that the non-targeted pool contained many sources perceived to be of medium and extremely low threat where the likelihood of uncovering a surprising risk
thus far has focused on predicting invisibility, comparing invader and native traits, and assessing environmental impacts, particularly on biodiversity. Do species with the greatest ecological impacts also have the greatest impacts on ecosystem services? Given that it is easier to prevent an introduction than to control an invasion, we must be capable of making good predictions regarding which species or groups of species will impact ecosystem services by understanding the underlying mechanisms.
observations Most models that aim to predict ranges for IAS are dependent on observed climate data for calibration and cross-validation. Typically, “gridded” climate datasets, derived from interpolation of an irregular network of meteorological station data (Hijmans et al. 2005; New et al. 1999, 2002) have been used as they provide complete spatial coverage. Indeed, most envelope type models rely on spatial autocorrelation of climate in these gridded datasets. Alternative sources of data include
there is a per-period beneﬁt of W when the invasive species is either not present or introduced and present at low levels of population. Assume that there is no beneﬁt during periods when the invasive species is established and spread at a high population level. Let ‰ be the discount factor between periods. The objective of the manager is to maximize the present value of beneﬁts minus the costs of prevention, detection, and control. The objective function for the manager can be written as